LEXICAL AND SEMANTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTOLOGISMS IN THE MODERN ENGLISH LANGUAGE

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Tetiana Nikolaieva

Abstract

The article has analyzed the semantic and lexical features of protologisms in the modern English language. It has been established that protologisms are considered new words that are proposed by a particular author in order to introduce those words into the language; these words have not yet found application in the vocabulary of other authors, i.e. have not yet become established as neologisms. Therefore, neologisms are always the author's lexical units. Thus, based on the analysis of the scientific literature, it has been highlighted that the author's neologisms bring some sense into the technical text, but at the same time, sometimes they perform another task that is to help draw a caricature of reality. On the other hand, author's neologisms by their artistic significance sometimes have some features of a metaphor: for example, their creation is based on the desire to give that or another word a new special meaning; specific linguistic means to depict a vivid image in the literary text for a reader.


It has been generalized that the author's protologisms are created to ensure the expressiveness of the speech. An author who seeks to preserve their individual style using their own terms and ignoring the fact that authorial lexical tokens in texts are difficult to translate, so they risk being misunderstood. It has been noted that the correct translation of protologisms is a difficult problem, though. For example, while translating neologisms in technical texts from Ukrainian into English, the most commonly used technique is a descriptive translation of a specific term. The specificity of translation of the author's protologisms is dictated by the fact that there is a very low probability of using direct conformities of a particular lexical token, as the author creates similar terms themselves. Thus, the author's protologism is not a vocabulary means of the language. However, the structure of protologism is predictable because new words, as a rule, evolve on the basis of already existing words and morphemes in the language. It has been established that in order to simplify the translation of the author's protologisms, it is necessary to dogmatize the most famous and generally accepted ways of word formation in English. They include the following: giving an existing word one more meaning (call - to call, cause); word formation (carryback (refund)); formation of forms by analogy with the existing ones in the language by adding to the different productive affixes (kite flyer (recipient of money in the form a fictitious bill)); conversion (E-mail me/us to... (to write by an e-mail...)); borrowing from other languages; reverse derivation; emergence (Forex reserve (forex = foreign + exchange), that is reserved in foreign currency); abbreviation (B-unit (Barclays currency unit, that is the international currency of the bank "Barclays Bank International")).

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How to Cite
Nikolaieva, T. . (2021). LEXICAL AND SEMANTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTOLOGISMS IN THE MODERN ENGLISH LANGUAGE. Global Prosperity, 1(3-2), 49–54. Retrieved from http://gprosperity.org/index.php/journal/article/view/44
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Articles
Author Biography

Tetiana Nikolaieva, Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts

Tetiana Nikolaieva, Associate Professor, PhD in Philological Sciences, Department  of Foreign Philology, Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts, Yevhena Konovaltsia Str., 36, 01601 Kyiv, Ukraine, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4642-1578